Size and Structure
Health units in Uganda are classified into hospitals, health centres IV, III and II. Their number has been increasing in recent years, In 2011 the total number of health units increased to 4,981 (11.9%). The number of health units categorized under private for profit ownership increased by 436 units (43.9%)
Hospitals in Uganda are categorised as Referral, Region and General Hospitals and were 143 in number in 2011.Of these, 2 were referral hospitals and 12 were Regional hospitals and the rest general hospitals. In 2011, Government owned the highest percentage of hospitals in the entire country and its share stood at 46% followed by Private Not for Profit at 43% and 11% was Private for Profit.
The World Health Organization observes that Uganda’s doctor-to-patient ratio is low, there is high morbidity and mortality that are attributed to preventable, largely communicable diseases e.g. prenatal and maternal-related conditions, malaria, and diarrheal diseases, with women and children bearing a disproportionate amount of the burden of disease. Figures from the ministry of Health show that malaria alone kills 320 Ugandans daily.
In addition to healthcare units described above, Uganda has thousands of private medical clinics and pharmacies scattered across the country.
- Raising consumer incomes and corresponding ability to purchase healthcare
- Inadequate health services and after care.
- Increased population.
- Low doctor to patient ratio.
- Increased need for specialized health and after care services.
- Extended life expectancy
- Emergence of advanced medical treatments and technologies.
- Changing dietary needs.
- More people seeking medical services. In 2010/11 there were 34.9 million OPD visits as compared to 36.8 million visits in 2009/10, thus posting an average OPD per capita utilisation of 1.0 % compared to 0.9 % recorded in 2009/10
- Increased use of health insurance services.
- New innovations in the health sector including drug discoveries.
- Use of herbal remedies
- Government policies to improve the sector encouraging people to visit medical facilities
- Increasing level of awareness
There has been a general improvement in mortality levels over time. Mortality Rate (IMR) and Under Five Mortality over the period 1995 to 2011. The IMR declined from 97 to 54 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1995 and 2011, while the under five mortality declined from 162 to 90 deaths per 1,000 live births over the same period.
- Investment in specialized hospitals and clinics.
- Nursing and care homes.
- Infrastructure development
- Under Public Private Partnerships (build own operate and transfer-BOOT and Build operate and transfer -BOT models).
- Medical equipment leasing
- Pharmaceutical and medical equipment research and marketing
- Medical specialist exchange programs
- Medical information technology
- Health care financing and management
- Medical training
- Natural chemotherapy research
- Clinical research
- Processing medical sundries and surgical equipment manufacturing
- Manufacture of diagnostic materials, reagents and equipment.
- Manufacturing packaging materials and raw materials
- Setting up of diagnostic equipment and materials.
- Manufacturing of human vaccines
- Pharmaceutical plant
- Supply of medical dental and other medicines.
- Air ambulance
- Disposal services
Sector Specific Licensing Requirements
Health is a regulated sector. Refer to the Ministry of Health and the East African Community General exemption 5th schedule. (Refer to Appendix 3)
Sector Specific Incentives for Investors
- Government provides subsidies amounting to 20%of the total revenue for the private not-for-profit practitioners.
Useful Addresses and Contacts
Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 7272 Kampala Uganda
Plot 6 Lourdel Rd, Nakasero; Tel: Gen. 256-414-340874 /231563 /9,
PS’ Office: 256-414-340872
Website - http://health.go.ug
National Drug Authority
P. O. Box 23096 Kampala, Uganda
46/48 Lumumba Avenue.
Tel (+256) 41 255665 / 347391/2
Fax. (+256) 41 255758
Pharmaceutical Society of Uganda
Plot 22 Tufnell Drive, Kamwokya Kampala
P.O.Box 3774, Kampala, Uganda,