Water and Sanitation

Water and Sanitation

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   Size and Structure of the Economy

  Size and structure

The water and sanitation sector has been under serious consideration since 2000. The Current investment plan is expected to cover the period 2000-2015. Between 2009/10 and 2010/11, the water produced by NWSC increased from 70.5 t0 77.7 million cubic meters.

Metered water

NWSC is the main provider of metered water in Uganda with the total capacity of 318, 842 m3 per day. It operates in 23 towns, 19 of which have water treatment works. The share of households with access to improved water sources has improved significantly over recent years, form 62.2% in 2002/3 to 73.8% in 2010/11. In order to ensure continued increases in access to quality water and sanitation, government is making more capital investment in a range water schemes. However, half of the districts are still below the national average of 63%. Water coverage in 130 sub-counties out of 1,024 is below 39%.

Unmetered Water

The Directorate of Water Development (DWD) also supplies water especially in the rural areas and small towns through the provision of boreholes. Over the years, there has been a general increase in the amount of water supplied by DWD. In 2009/10, DWD supplied about 3.6 million cubic metres and in 2010/11, it supplied 3.9 million cubic metres registering an increment of 11 %. It is worth noting that the amount of water supplied to small towns has tripled since period 2006/07. Close to 19 million people live in rural areas, which are served by about 16,000 point sources and small, rural piped systems.

According to a recent (World Bank report, 2011), most of the population relies on agriculture and safe water supplies that are limited.

Pit latrine coverage is used as a proxy measure of access to appropriate sanitation facilities. The Latrine Coverage at national level has continued to improve for the last five years. In 2010/11 it was 71 % compared to 59 % recorded in 2006/07 however, it is still way below the required national levels.

Key Players within Sector

  • Ministry of Water and Environment
  • National Water and sewerage Corporation
  • Non Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) including Water Aid
  • Private sector – highly fragmented.


Demand Drivers and Resource Based Factors

Demand Drivers

  • Increasing population.
  • Regional demand from neighbouring countries including South Sudan.
  • Long droughts and unpredictable weather patterns. The government cannot sufficiently promote water harvesting systems and provision of irrigation equipment like small water pumping machines to various small or medium farmers and water dams in a bid to adapt to modern techniques purposely to improve on the production of agricultural products to compete with other world class products. This ushers in the need for irrigation schemes hence increasing the demand for water sources.
  • Urbanization too raises the demand for water and sanitation.
  • The need for renovation or replacement of water and sewerage system.

Improved lifestyles


Resource Base Factors

  • Plenty of fresh water resources
  • Universities and colleges able to produce technicians and engineers to support the sector.

Investment Opportunities

  • Public Private Partnerships in providing piped water.
  • Private consortium to provide water and sewerage services.
  •  Public Private Partnership in the construction of water dams and reservoirs.
  • Investment in the production, bottling and distribution of natural mineral water.
  • Management services and systems for the sector.
  • Manufacturers and suppliers of purifiers and other inputs.
  • Establishment of capacity building to cater for this specific area.
  • Irrigation schemes
  • Manufacture, sale and distribution of water equipment


Sector Specific Licensing Requirements
(Refer to Appendix 3)

Sector Specific Incentives for Investors


Useful Addresses and Contacts

Ministry of Water & Environment
P.O.Box 20026
Kampala - Uganda

National Enviromental Managment Authority (NEMA)
NEMA HOUSE, Plot 17/19/21 Jinja Road
P O Box 22255
Kampala - Uganda
Email: info@nemaug.org;